Thursday, June 20, 2024

What Is Direct Labor Rate Variance & How To Calculate It?

ABC Company has an annual production budget of 120,000 units and an annual DL budget of $3,840,000. Four hours are needed to complete a finished product and the company has established a standard rate of $8 per hour. The company used 39,500 direct labor hours and paid a total of $325,875. In this case, the actual hours worked are \(0.05\) per box, the standard hours are \(0.10\) per box, and the standard rate per hour is \(\$8.00\). If the actual rate of pay per hour is less than the standard rate of pay per hour, the variance will be a favorable variance. If, however, the actual rate of pay per hour is greater than the standard rate of pay per hour, the variance will be unfavorable.


  1. As with direct materials variances, you can use either formulas or a diagram to compute direct labor variances.
  2. Idle time variance can be logically assumed to be due to inefficiency.
  3. After filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy inDecember 2002, United cut close to $5,000,000,000in annual expenditures.

All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. For information pertaining to the registration status of 11 Financial, please contact the state securities regulators for those states in which 11 Financial maintains a registration filing. Finally, regularly review and adjust your compensation policies to ensure you’re paying a fair wage to your employees.

Do you already work with a financial advisor?

In other words, when actual number of hours worked differ from the standard number of hours allowed to manufacture a certain number of units, labor efficiency variance occurs. Actual and standard quantities and rates for direct labor for the production of 1,000 units are given in the following table. Total actual and standard direct labor costs are calculated by multiplying number of hours by rate, and the results are shown in the last row of the first two columns.

3: Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances

The 21,000 standard hours are the hours allowed given actual production. For Jerry’s Ice Cream, the standard allows for 0.10 labor hours per unit of production. Thus the 21,000 standard hours (SH) is 0.10 hours per unit × 210,000 units produced. We have demonstrated how important it is for managers to beaware not only of the cost of labor, but also of the differencesbetween budgeted labor costs and actual labor costs. This awarenesshelps managers make decisions that protect the financial health oftheir companies. The 21,000 standard hours are the hours allowed given actualproduction.

Theoretical Ex-Rights Price: Definition & Calculation

The pay cut was proposed to last as long as the company remained in bankruptcy and was expected to provide savings of approximately $620,000,000. How would this unforeseen pay cut affect United’s direct labor rate variance? The direct labor rate variance would likely be favorable, perhaps accounting automation totaling close to $620,000,000, depending on how much of these savings management anticipated when the budget was first established. United Airlines asked abankruptcy court to allow a one-time 4 percent pay cut for pilots,flight attendants, mechanics, flight controllers, and ticketagents.

As with direct materials variances, all positive variances are unfavorable, and all negative variances are favorable. The labor rate variance calculation presented previously shows the actual rate paid for labor was $15 per hour and the standard rate was $13. This results in an unfavorable variance since the actual rate was higher than the expected (budgeted) rate. The difference column shows that 100 extra hours were used vs. what was expected (unfavorable).

If anything, they try to produce a favorable variance by seeing more patients in a quicker time frame to maximize their compensation potential. The combination of the two variances can produce one overall total direct labor cost variance. The other two variances that are generally computed for direct labor cost are the direct labor efficiency variance and direct labor yield variance. Next, we must determine the total labor costs of the employees working those hours. In the auditing example, one auditor could be a senior team member with a higher salary, payroll taxes, and benefit costs than the two junior members.

It also shows that the actual rate per hour was $0.50 lower than standard cost (favorable). The total actual cost direct labor cost was $1,550 lower than the standard cost, which is a favorable outcome. Hitech manufacturing company is highly labor intensive and uses standard costing system. The standard time to manufacture a product at Hitech is 2.5 direct labor hours. For example, a company is looking to hire more staff to meet the expected cost of labor in a production facility. Hiring new staff means that they will also be able to push out more total hours worked, resulting in more product.

Direct labor rate variance is equal to the difference between actual hourly rate and standard hourly rate multiplied by the actual hours worked during the period. The variance would be favorable if the actual direct labor cost is less than the standard direct labor cost allowed for actual hours worked by direct labor workers during the period concerned. Conversely, it would be unfavorable if the actual direct labor cost is more than the standard direct labor cost allowed for actual hours worked. The difference in hours is multiplied by the standard price per hour, showing a $1,000 unfavorable direct labor time variance. This is offset by a larger favorable direct labor rate variance of $2,550. The net direct labor cost variance is still $1,550 (favorable), but this additional analysis shows how the time and rate differences contributed to the overall variance.

This information gives the management a way tomonitor and control production costs. Next, we calculate andanalyze variable manufacturing overhead cost variances. Direct labor rate variance determines the performance of human resource department in negotiating lower wage rates with employees and labor unions. A positive value of direct labor rate variance is achieved when standard direct labor rate exceeds actual direct labor rate. Thus positive values of direct labor rate variance as calculated above, are favorable and negative values are unfavorable. In this case, the actual rate per hour is \(\$7.50\), the standard rate per hour is \(\$8.00\), and the actual hour worked is \(0.10\) hours per box.

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